Passive Voice : Pengertian, Rumus dan Contoh Kalimatnya

 

A. Pengertian Passive Voice

Dear online learners! Passive Voice (Kalimat Passive) dalam Bahasa Inggris sebenarnya hampir sama pengertiannya dengan kalimat pasif dalam Bahasa Indonesia. Kalimat pasif adalah kalimat yang kata kerjanya dikenai pekerjaan, atau terkadang kita menyebutnya kalimat pasif adalah kalimat yang kata kerjanya dikenai pekerjaan. 

Sementara, perbedaan kalimat aktif dan kalimat pasif dalam bahasa Indonesia dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut:

1. kalimat aktif (Active voice)  adalah kalimat yang kata kerjanya berawalan dengan me – , contoh : menulis (write), menunggu (wait) , membuat (make), menghubungi (call), mengajar (teach), dan lain sebagainya. Dengan kata lain, kalimat aktif adalah kalimat yang kata kerjanya melakukan pekerjaan.

2. Kalimat pasif (Passive voice) adalah kalimat yang kata kerjanya berawalan dengan di- , contoh : dipandu (is guided), di hubungi (is called), dibuat (is made), dilihat (is seen), di bawa (is taken), dan lain sebagainya.  Dengan kata lain, kalimat pasif adalah kalimat yang kata kerjanya dikenai pekerjaan.

Dear online learners! Walaupun kata kerja (verb) yang digunakan dalam passive voice adalah kata kerja ketiga (verb 3/past participle), contohnya : eaten, drunk, written, made, called, taken, spoken, etc,  tetapi perubahan active voice menjadi passive voice akan sangat tergantung pada tenses yang digunakan pada kalimat aktifnya karena akan berdampak pada to be (helping verb) yang akan digunakan pada passive voice itu sendiri.

Dear online learners! Secara sederhana, untuk memahami passive voice maka kita harus mengetahui syarat passive voice itu sendiri. Adapun penjelasan syarat passive voice adalah sebagai berikit:

B. Syarat passive voice

Dear online learners! Syarat passive voice dalam bahasa Inggris sebenarnya hanya dua, yaitu :

1. Passive voice always uses transitive verb (need object).

2. Passive voice always uses to be + Verb 3 (past participle).

Transitive verb adalah kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris yang harus diikuti oleh object dan tidak dapat berdiri sendiri, seperti : drink (meminum) , eat (memakan), make (membuat), take (mengambil), bring (membawa), buy (membeli), call (menghubungi), write (menulis), etc. 

Dear online learners! Sementara, lawan transitive verb adalah intransitive verb, yaitu kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris yang tidak memerlukan object karena dapat berdiri sendiri, contoh : go (pergi), run (lari), arrive (tiba), sneeze, lie (berbohong), sit (duduk), smile (tersenyum), laugh (tertawa), come (datang), fall (jatuh) , etc. Kalimat aktif (active voice) yang menggunakan intransitive verb tidak dapat dirubah menjadi kalimat passive (passive voice).

C. To be yang digunakan dalam Kalimat Passive

Dear online learners! To be yang digunakan dalam kalimat Pasif (passive voice) sangat tergantung pada jenis tenses dari kalimat aktifnya. Pola to be dalam passive voice dapat dilihat pada penjelasan berikut ini :

1. Simple Present Tense = am, is, are.

2. Simple Past Tense = was, were.

3. Present Continuous Tense = being

4. Present Future Tense = be

5. Modal Auxilliary = be

6. Present Perfect Tense = have/has been

7. Present Perfect Continuous Tense = been being

8. Past Perfect Tense = had been

9. Past Continuous Tense = was/were being

D. Contoh Kalimat Pasif dalam Bahasa Inggris

Dear online learners!  Sebelum kita memahami contoh kalimat passive (passive voice) maka kita harus tekankan lagi pada tiga hal, yaitu:

a. Kita harus memahami jenis tenses yang digunakan dalam kalimat aktifnya.

b. Kita harus memahami to be yang digunakan dalam kalimat pasif untuk masing-masing tenses dari kalimat aktifnya.

c. Kita harus mengetahui jenis kata kerja ketiganya (Verb 3/past participle).

1.  Simple Present Tense = am, is, are.

a. Active Voice     : Jimmy Lorenzo does the home work three times in a week.

   Passive Voice    : The home work is done by him three times in a week..

b. Active Voice     : They call  him twice in a week.

   Passive Voice    : He is called by you twice in a week.

c. Active Voice     : The boss of the company meet me every month.

   Passive Voice    : I am met by the boss of the company every month.

2. Simple Past Tense = was, were.

a. Active Voice     :  She saw the accident yesterday.

   Passive Voice    : The accident was seen by her yesterday.

b. Active Voice     : The students knew all quizzes last week.

   Passive Voice    : All quizzes were known by the students last week.

3. Present Continuous Tense = being

  Active Voice      : You are writing a short story

  Passive Voice     : A short story is being written by you.

4. Present Future Tense = be

a. Active Voice    : They will repair the air conditioner in their classroom.

   Passive Voice   : The air conditioner in their classroom will be repaired by them 

b. Active Voice    : Mary is going to do her home work tonight at seven pm.

   Passive Voice   : Her homework is going to be done by Mary tonight at seven pm.

5. Modal Auxilliary = be

a. Active Voice   : They can help you.

   Passive Voice  : You can be helped by them

b. Active Voice   : I should find the answer.

   Passive Voice  : The answer shound be found by me.

c. Active Voice   : He may take the book on the table.

  Passive Voice   : The book on the table may be taken by him.

d. Active Voice   : John and Mary will meet you tomorrow morning.

  Passive Voice   : You will be met by them tomorrow morning.

6. Present Perfect Tense = have/has been

a. Active Voice   : They have ever taken English Course

   Passive Voice  : English Course has ever been taken by them

b. Active Voice   : Marilia has ever visited Monas

   Passive Voice  : Monas has ever been taken by Marilia.

7. Present Perfect Continuous Tense = been being

a. Active Voice   : They have been reading a book for one hour.

  Passive Voice   : A book has been being read by them for one hour.

b. Active Voice   : I have been eating salt since child.

  Passive Voice   : Salt has been being eaten by me since child.

8. Past Perfect Tense = had been

  Active Voice    : John and Mary had known all the questions.

  Passive Voice   : All the questions had been known by them.

9. Past Continuous Tense = was/were being

a. Active Voice   : I was watching TV while she was calling me.

  Passive Voice   : TV was being watched by me while I was being callled by her.

b. Active Voice   : You were writing an essay when they ate fried chicken.

  Passive Voice   : An essay was being written by you when fried chicken was eaten  by them. 

E. Passive voice dengan dua oject

Dalam beberapa kalimat, active voice ternyata juga mempunyai dua object. Apabila kita jumpai hal seperti itu maka pola perubahan menjadi kalimat aktif adalah sebagai berikut:

   Active Voice    : The author gives Marilia a very new popular book.

    Passive Voice : A very new popular book to Marilia is given by the author.

Selain itu, apabila terdapat bentuk modal auxiliary yang menggunakan should have, ought to have dan must have maka pola tersebut harus ditambah been + Verb 3 (Past Participle).

Examples:

a. Active Voice   : Marta and Carol should have spoken English.

   Passive Voice  : English should have been spoken by them.

b. Active Voice   : We must have made special product for my our prime minister.

   Passive Voice  : Special product  must have been made by me for our prime minister.

c. Active Voice   : The natural science students ought to have achieve good score for math.

   Passive Voice  : Good score for math ought to have been achieved by The natural science students..

F. Latihan Soal

Change these sentences into passive!

1. Marilia and Marta find brillian idea to solve the problem.

2. The daughter of that family  can claim the insurance for their parents.

3. You and I have been drinking mineral water since child.

4. They have ever given something to someone special.

5. Sisilia is celebrating birthday party tonight.

6. They  were playing football while someone was playing games.

7. Tom and Carol are going to pick up you tomorrow.

8. Marta and Sisilia have seen the tragedy many times.

9. We  will handle this responsibility together because you manager is out.

10.The social science students should have taken additional class to support ability in understanding monetary crisis. 



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