Cause and Effect Sentences : Pengertian, Karakteristik, Generic Structure dan Contoh penggunaannya


A. Pengertian Cause and Effect Sentence.

Dear online learners! Cause and effect merupakan kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris yang menyatakan kegiatan/aksi (action) dimana kegiatan tersebut pada akhirnya menimbulkan reaksi (reaction). Dengan kata lain cause and effect adalah kalimat sebab dan akibat.  Cause and effect  juga merupakan kalimat yang mengandung unsur-unsur penyebab sesuatu terjadi yang akan menimbulkan akibat bagi sesuatu yang lainnya.

Dengan kata lain, cause and effect adalah hubungan antara peristiswa/sesuatu yang terjadi yang membawa dampak/akibat kombinasi/penggabungan  antara aksi dan reaksi (action and reaction). Contoh : 

1. The massive earthquake can cause tsunami. (Gempa besar dapat menyebabkan tsunami).

2. Bad preparation can cause bad result. (Persiapan yang buruk dapat menyebabkan hasil jelek).

3. The habbits in our enviroment can influence someone’s character. (Kebiasaan dilingkungan kita dapat mempengaruhi karakter seseorang.

4. Smoking can cause heart attack and  lung cancer. (Merokok dapat menyebabkan serangan jantung dan kanker paru-paru).

5. The illegal loging can cause the massive flooding. (Penebangan hutan secara liar dapat mengakibatkan banjir besar).

B. The Characteristic of Cause and Effect dan Rumus Cause and Effect Sentence

Dear online learners! Terdapat beberapa karakteristik untuk cause and effect sentences. Mereka adalah:

1. Menggunakan kata atau phrase seperti : Due to, Because of, Owing to, Thanks to, As a consequence of, As a result of, Because, Since, As, For, etc.

2. Menggunakan signal words/phrases because of, thanks to, as a result of, due to, as a consequence of dan owing to apabila diikuti oleh noun dan verb.

3. Menggunakan pola “Signal Word/Phrase + Cause + Effect”. 

a. Due to Technical Problem Garuda Indonesia flight number GIA302 from Pekanbaru to Jakarta will be delayed until 14.20 thank you.

Catatan : 

Phrase/Signal word : Due to, Cause : Technical Problem (noun),  Effect : The flight delayed.

b. As a consequence of the massive storm, many houses were broken. 

Catatan : 

Phrase/Signal word : As a consequence of, Cause : massive storm, Effect : Many houses were broken.

c. Because of his problem, He didn’t want to eat anything.


Phrase/Signal word : Because of, Cause : His problem, Effect : Didn’t want to eat anything.

4. Menggunakan pola “ Effect + Signal word/phrase + Cause”.

a. He was very sad as the result of his bad test score.

Catatan : 

Phrase/Signal word : as the result of, Cause : his bad test score, Effect : He was very sad.

b. He was caught by the policeman because of his cases.

Catatan : 

Phrase/Signal word : because of, Cause : his cases, Effect : He was caught by the policeman.

c. Marta could not sing at the concert owing to her overlapping schedule.

Catatan :

Phrase/Signal word : Owing to, Cause : her overlapping schedule, Effect : She couldn’t sing at that concert.

d. Carolina and Sisilia are always late because of their bad time management.

Catatan : 

Phrase : because of, Cause : bad time management,  Effect : They are always late.

e. They are discipline as the consequence of boarding school regulation. 

Catatan : 

Phrase : as the consequence of Cause : boarding school regulation,  Effect : They are discipline.

5. Apabila Cause and Effect Sentence diikuti dengan subjek + verb atau verb phrase , maka biasanya menggunakan kata atau frasa (signal word/phase) seperti : Because, Since, As, For dan mengikuti berikut ini: (Phrase + Cause + Effect) dan juga pola (Effect +Phrase+Cause). 


a. BecauseJohn is dilligent, he got good score in Math.

Catatan : 

Signal Phrase: because, Cause: John is dilligent, Effect: He got good score in Math.

b. Carolina always comes on time because she always sleeps earlier.

Catatan :

Signal phrase: Because Cause: she always sleeps earlier, Effect : She always come on time.

c. The traveling  was canceled since we are facing Covid-19 pandemic.


Signal phrase: since, Cause: we are facing Covid-19 pandemic, Effect : the traveling was cancelled

4. Billy could not play basketball for his broken leg.

Catatan : 

Signal phrase: for, Cause: his broken leg, Effect : Billy couldn’t paly basketball.

5. She was dismissed as a consequence of her ignorance


Signal phrase: as a consequence of, Cause: her ignorance, Effect : She was dismissed

C. Contoh Kalimat Cause and Effect.

Berikut 25 contoh Kalimat Cause and Effect dalam Bahasa Inggris ( Examples of Cause and Effect Sentences). 

1. Sisilia didn't follow the manual books correctly, so the skills did not come out as expected.

2. The clock has shown 10.00 pm, so Marta should have slept.

3. Because of so many diiscounts given, the sales are going up.

4. Water is formed when two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom combine.

5. The baby was crying, so Dad picked him up.

6. I learned to play the drums quickly because I took lessons from a pro.

7. The batter couldn't hit the softball because he didn't keep his eyes on the ball.

8. When the manuscript is edited, the company will publish it.

9. Because the cat was frightened, he arched his back and fluffed his tail.

10.A peacock will spread his feathers so he will attract a female.

11.Since the electricity went out for most of the day, the ice cream in the freezer melted.

12.As the wind speed increases, the sail boat moves faster.

13.When nuclear fusion stops or starts, a star explodes.

14.Wind is produced when the surface of the Earth is heated unevenly.

15.Because of inflation, the dollar is worth less than before.

16.Since the refrigerator was practically empty, we had to go to the store. 

17.We received seven inches of rain in four hours since the underpass was flooded.

18.I never brush my teeth, as the result  I have 5 cavities.

19.Smoking cigarettes can cause lung cancer

20.Many buffalo were killed as consequence buffalo almost became extinct.

21.The streets were snow-packed and icy  Cars needed more time to stop.

22.He broke his arm, the consequence the doctor put it in a cast.

23.The boss was busy therefore her secretary took a message.

24.A basketball player was traveling as the result the referee called a penalty.

25.I flipped the light switch on as the result the light came on.

D. Contoh Paragraph Cause and Effect

a. Pengertian Paragraf Cause and Effect

Dear online learners! Setelah memahami kalimat sebab akibat (cause and effect sentences) maka selanjutnya kita juga harus memahami cause and effect dalam bentuk paragraf. Cause and Effect Paragraph adalah jenis paragraf yang berisi pemikiran dan analisa penulis tentang sebab dan akibat sebuag kejadian/proses/ peristiwa. 

Pada awal paragraf akan dijabarkan sebab akibat dalam bentuk kalimat utama yang dijelaskan di awal kalimat dan kemudian ditarik menjadi satu kesimpulan umum yang merupakan akibat dari penyebab – peyebab yang telah dijabarkan tersebut. Model paragraf cause and effect ini biasanya sering digunakan dalam penulisan essay dan text explanation. Hal ini dikarenakan model ini dianggap memiliki alur penyampaian gagasan yang jelas dan terstruktur, sehingga para pembaca mudah mengerti ketika membacanya.

b. Generic Structure Cause and Effect Paragraph.

1. Having main idea from the topic discuss.

2. Having supporting detail to support cause and effect sentences.

3. Ending by Cause and Effect Conclusion

4. Use various tenses depend on the time events/activity/action.

5. Tend to use active and passive sentences

6. Use transition signals like because, because of, due to, consequently, as a result, dan causes.

7. Use the third person’s point of views.

c. Examples of Cause and Effect Paragraph.

Contoh 1

Fermented drinking is exceptionally risky for our wellbeing. There are parcel of issues brought on by this unsafe liquid. In the first place, it can bring about a swell in our liver. This is on account of it can trigger the liver to work additional hard separating the liquid in our body, so that, the liver gets to be swollen in light of the fact that it contains so much liquid. Besides, fermented drinking harms the human mind. It will diminish the capacity of liquor junkie’s mind, in this manner expanding the danger of sadness and disappointment. On the off chance that this happens, there will be an adjustment in conduct on the alcoholic, even they can be distraught. At that point, liquor additionally diminishes the elements of our faculties. One is our eye is totally can be visually impaired as a result of liquor. Likewise, this beverage can likewise accelerate menopause in ladies in light of the fact that it diminishes the capacity of regenerative organs in ladies, with the goal that they will get menopause sooner than the period by and large. Last, it is likewise ready to bring about imperfections in the embryo. Liquor that comes into the assemblage of pregnant ladies likewise has an effect on their child, so they will be conceived with inabilities. In this way, the flow of jazzed up drinking is denied in Indonesia in light of the fact that it causes a few unsafe infections to the body.

Contoh 2

Drought which is happened this year is very long. Even, in the last two month almost there was no rain. Moreover, with the very hot weather makes surface of the soil is cracked and dry and causes the dust is flying away. In addition, the water that is stored in the irrigation couldn’t be found anymore, so that there is no water which is flowing the farmers’ rice. As a result, they suffered a failure in harvesting because the rice they planted is failed to grow caused by this drought.

Contoh 3

Air pollution is the substances or gases that could do harm to the living beings dwelling on the earth within the atmosphere. In other words, air pollution is considered as gases or substances which has a damaging effect on the living organisms as well as on the environment. This type of pollution is caused by several factors, such as burning of fossil fuels like coal and petroleum, pollutants emitted from vehicles, agricultural activities for example the use of insecticides, pesticides and fertilizers, exhaust from factories and industries that decreasing the quality of air, mining operations, indoor air pollution like cleaning products, painting supplies, toxic chemicals, dust, and smokes from fire. Air pollution causes some of the major health issues. Consequently, it can harm the health of people and animals, damage plants or stop them from growing properly. It also causes issues such as respiratory diseases (including asthma and changes in lung function), cardiovascular diseases, and even death in some severe cases. In addition, air pollution causes poor visibility which lead to the decrease in the tourism sector.

Contoh  4

Alcoholic drinking is very dangerous for our health. There are lot of problems caused by this dangerous fluid. First, it can cause a swell in our liver. This is because it can trigger the liver to work extra hard filtering the fluid in our body, so that, the liver becomes swollen because it contains so much fluid. Secondly, alcoholic drinking damages the human brain. It will decrease the function of alcohol addict’s brain, thereby increasing the risk of depression and frustration. If this happens, there will be a change in behavior on the alcoholic, even they can be mad. Then, alcohol also decreases the functions of our senses. One is our eye is absolutely can be blind because of alcohol. In addition, this drink can also speed up menopause in women because it decreases the function of reproductive organs in women, so that they will get menopause sooner than the period in general. Last, it is also able to cause defects in the fetus. Alcohol that comes into the body of pregnant women also has an impact on their baby, so that they will be born with disabilities. Therefore, the circulation of alcoholic drinking is prohibited in Indonesia because it causes several dangerous diseases to the body.

E. Contoh Cause and Effect Essay

a. Pengertian Cause and Effect Essay

Dear online learners! Cause and effect essay adalah karangan essay yang bertujuan untuk menjelaskan sebab akibat dari peristiwa/situasi/proses/kejadian dari sudut pandang penulis yang berdasarkan data/fakta/sumber dan beberapa referensi lainnya. Tetapi, kadang-kadanga tujuan penulisan juga sangat tergantung pada jenis teks apa yang akan dibuat penulis karena masing-masing teks dalam bahasa Inggris juga mempunyai tujuan yang berbeda-beda pula. 

Semua tergantung pada pada maksud dan pendekatan yang digunakan. Teks argumentative yang menceritkan tentang sebab akibat akan mempunyai tujuan yang berbeda dengan teks desrcriptive maupun explanation teks. Walaupun demikian, secara umum struktur penulisan teks sebab akibat (generic structure cause and effect essay) harus mengikuti aturan yang telah ditetapkan.

b. Generic Structure Cause and Effect Essay

1. Introduction: Dalam introduction penulis harus menjelaskan peristiwa/situasi yang akan penulis kembangkan. termasuk juga thesis statement (ide pokok dari keseluruhan tulisan atau essay kita) yang akan membuat penulis fokus pada sebab dan akibat sebuah peristiwa/situasi.

2. Body Paragraphs (Causes): Dalam bagian ini sebaiknya penulis memulai dengan apa yang dia pikirkan yang menjadi penyebab sebuah peristiwa/kejadian/situasi yang akan diceritakan dalam karangan.

3. Body Paragraphs (Effects): Sama halnya apa yang menjadi penyebab sebuah peristiwa/kejadian/situasi maka dalam bagian ini juga penulis harus mencari dan mengetahui akibat dari kejadian/peristiwa/situasi yang diceritakan dalam karangan.

4. Conclusion: Dalam bagian ini penulis harus mengulangi lagi ide pokok dari karangan yang dibuatnya, merangkum poin-poin utama dari karangan dan memperlihatkan bagian mana sebenarnya yang mendukung tulisan tersebut sehingga dapat dikatakan sebagai teks sebab akibat (cause and effect essay).

Text 1

Every person in this world have known that dating is a familiar thing and it is becoming a habit for them. In fact, not only adults do the dating but also the teenagers. As we know that teenagers are getting puberty and it makes the teenagers have interest feeling with another gender. Therefore, they will look for a boyfriend or a girlfriend to be their partner. Dating can be safe for teenagers if they have a good mindset what they have to do and do not. However, dating can also be dangerous for teenagers if they cannot control their self. This essay will explain why dating can be dangerous for teenagers.

Teenager is the time when a child growing up to become an adult and teenager is the age where they looking for their identity, looking for a lifestyle which is fit to them. Due to modernization, the teens who previously did not know anything and then knowing anything and one of the most dangerous consequence is that free sex. Free sex is one of the lifestyle chosen by teens, but they do not know what effects that will come from it. The effects of free sex may interrupt the future and life of teenagers.

Another result is that when teenagers already addicted to drugs that can influence them to do bad things. Related with drug use, the teenager then ask their parents for innumerable money and they spend those money just for having fun. They took their parent’s money and do not want to know where the money is come from and it should be right in front of them. In addition, in the future if the teenagers keep doing this it probably makes them to be unsuccessful human. However, this is extremely dangerous for the teenagers themselves and for the people who are around them, especially for the family.

In conclusion, dating in teen age it's up to their business, but they must have good thinking about it. Do not let them fall on the negative things that will ruined their lives and falling apart. Parents should be able to play an important role on this. They should look after the activities and progress of their children. In other words, parents should become a friend with their children so that they can manage what is the right and the wrong thing to do for their children.

Text 2

Many foreign teachers are amazed at the number of absences that Omani students think are acceptable when they come off to college.  In most countries around the world, no student are allowed to miss more than two to five percent of their classes in a semester.  Students at SCT are permitted to miss up to  fifteen percent of their classes in a single semester.  There are many bad effects of missing too many classes at SCT. Here are the three most important bad effects of missing too many classes and not practicing enough English.

First, the most important reason that students hurt themselves when they don’t attend class is that they do not spend enough time speaking, writing, listening, reading, and practicing English language and vocabulary. When time-spent-practicing English per-student is too low, students cannot move from one level to the next in the Foundation program easily.  If they are lucky enough to pass to a higher level or even to pass all four levels in the Foundation English, the students have either cheated or depended too much on others to do their work, i.e. students are not passing exams and foundation levels through their own effort. So, the students are not becoming responsible adults, e.g. responsible for their own marks or grades.           

Second, because it is often true that students who do not attend classes regularly at the Foundation level either cheat or depend on others to do their work for them, these same students have trouble in all of their Post-Foundations courses, too.   Students have trouble in their post-foundation courses because their English skills and math skills are weak.  Soon they may not pass the other SCT courses nor get good grades.  This means that the recommendations from professors will not be very good.  That will make it harder to find a job.           

Third, because of low attendance and other bad study habits, some students actually will either leave SCT during the Foundation or Post-Foundation period.   Others will continue to fail too many exams.  Others simply will miss too many classes. Others give up hope and stop going to college.  Many of these students then have trouble getting the career or jobs that they have dreamt of getting. This is very sad or tragic.           

In conclusion, attendance is very important for students at SCT, but too many students do not take attendance nor practice of English and study of English or math seriously.   It is very important for students to have high attendance rates and to spend as much time practicing English (and math) regularly.  I believe that both in the Foundation level and in the Post-Foundation level students must have good attendance and good study habits.  

Text 3

The homeless epidemic is a serious problem in nearly every major city across the country. According to the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, there are over 500,000 people experiencing homelessness on any given night. It's a difficult challenge to tackle precisely because it is so multi-faceted, both in terms of its causes and its far-reaching effects. 

Homelessness affects not only the people who must struggle to survive on the street, but also the business owners or residents in the neighborhoods. Petty crime and drug abuse are common. While many factors have contributed to the rise in homeless rates, one of the most profound is the lack of adequate social support services.

By definition, a homeless person is someone without a permanent home. They may seek shelter in parking garages, ATM vestibules, and subway stations. On a purely practical level, if a city can provide enough homeless shelters and other forms of affordable housing, the people who would otherwise sleep on the streets can sleep far more safely with a consistent roof over their heads.

Social support services, whether they are funded publicly or privately, would be able to tackle many of the immediate and long-term challenges that face people experiencing homelessness. In addition to providing adequate and reliable shelter, services like drug counselling, treatment for physical or emotional abuse, and career counselling can address some of the factors that lead to homelessness.

The individual stories of each person going through homelessness will vary. What is often found, though, is that the homelessness came about because of a series of events. A person may unexpectedly lose their job, which may lead to family problems at home, which may lead to drug abuse as a coping mechanism, which may lead to further financial stress, and so on. Appropriate social services at any point in this process may be able to prevent homelessness from becoming this person's reality.

The effects of homelessness are equally complex and can be mirror images of the root causes. Because the person is experiencing homelessness, this may put profound strain on personal relationships. Drug abuse can become an issue, as the person seeks some way of coping with the pain and hardship of living on the streets. This leads to a downward spiral that drives the person deeper and deeper into the depths of crippling poverty and isolation.

The impact extends well beyond the individual, too. As homelessness becomes an increasingly visible issue in a neighborhood, home values can plummet. Middle and working class families may move out, providing a bigger opening for various forms of crime. Businesses may close as the area becomes too prone to theft and property crime.

Every city, every neighborhood faces unique challenges when it comes to homelessness. While the specific root causes can vary between individuals, the lack of adequate social services is a leading contributor. The right social services can address, reduce or even remove some of these other underlying causes. With powerful effects for both the individual and society at large, homelessness is a pressing issue and one that must be approached with tact and compassion.

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